Polymorphosim Elements

SSR (Microsatellite polymorphism, or Simple sequence repeat) (1)
SSR is a kind of genetic markers that has a certain short iterative base pairs in repeated sequence for manty times for genetic studies. Also SSRs are higher mutated than other parts of DNA. SSRs are used for understanding genetic diversity using simple sequence repeat analysis. Similarity and differences and also heterozygote are determined by one of 6 different SSRs (1)
AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism)
AFLP is a difference in length of specific restriction sites. A specific region of DNA is cut by certain restriction enzymes. By using these restriction sites and oligonucleotide adaptors, certain region is amplified by PCR. Products of PCR are driven on gel electrophoresis and the lengths of the fragments can be determined with help of AFLP. AFLP can be used for detecting DNA analysis of an induvial. (2)
RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA)
RAPD markers are DNA segments produced as random fragments by PCR amplification with arbitrary attachments of short primers. RAPD is used for obtaining when there is no knowledge about a DNA sequence. (3, 4)
SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism)
SNP is a polymorphism that occurs on a single nucleotide pair at specific region on DNA genome according to an induvial in a population. This condition can be seen in a certain range. Wide of genetic diseases happen because of SNPs such as  sickle-cell anemia, β-thalassemia and cystic fibrosis.(5)
RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism)
RFLP is a difference of length in a single locus that can be obtained the presence of it by using restriction enzymes. As a marker, restricted DNA fragments are driven on gel by electrophoresis and polymorphism can be detected. RFLP can be used as a method for identified abnormal situation in length. (6)
References:
Afaf I. Shehata, Haila A. Al-Ghethar, and Ali A. Al-Homaidan. 2009 Oct 27. “Application of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for molecular diversity and heterozygosity analysis in maize inbred lines.” Saudi J Biol Sci. 16(2): 57–62
Lopes, Miguel. 1999.”AFLP fingerprinting for analysis of yeast genetic variation.” International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology: 915-24
Williams JG. DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Nov 25; 18(22):6531-5
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/probe/docs/techrapd/
http://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-snp-295
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/probe/docs/techrflp/
B. Mittal, P. Chaturvedi, S. Tulsyan. 31 October 2016. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Brenner’s Encyclopedia of Genetics (Second Edition). Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Pages 190–193

Auxotrophy Experiment Laboratory

BY4741
W303-1A
his – –
leu – +
met + + (partial red color)
ura – –
trp + + (red color)
ade + – (red color)
YNB-ALL + + (partial red color)
YPD + +
MATa + +

Discussion:

Genotypes of BY4741 are MATa his3Δ1 leu2Δ0 met15Δ0 ura3Δ0. (1)According to this, we need to see no change in the petri dishes where these materials are not available. We should have any change in cultures having no these material, because mutated yeast cells, BY4741cannot produce essential growth nutrients without presence of these materials. His, leu, met and ura are auxotroph for the cells. Except “met”, the results are like we expect. Only the culture “met” shows positive result. During placing cells onto plate respectively, we placed “met” nutrient into the dish having to have lack of “met” accidently because of bad sterilizing. Other possibility is contamination during experiment by hands, or a wrong movement od experimenter.
Genotypes of W303-1A are MATa ade2-1, ura3-1, his3-11, trp1-1, leu2-3, leu2-112, can1-100. (2) W303-1A cells are formed mutated for these growth factors. Without these nutrients, culture can’t grow. Ade, ura, his, trp and leu are auxotroph for the cells. In this experiment, we shouldn’t have seen growth at “trp” and “leu”. The result show that these strains were prepared wrong. Also we saw red color at some samples. We see white colony if no change exist on the genes affecting pigment producing pathway. The reason of red color is that any mutation on ade2 or ade1 occur a change at adenine biosynthetic pathway and this accumulation form cell-limited red pigment. (3) . Without “ade” dish, we wasn’t expecting. Best explanation is contamination.

References:
http://www.yeastgenome.org/strain/BY4741/overview
http://yeastgenome.org/strain/W303-1A/overview
Agnese Kokina, Juris Kibilds, Janis Liepins. 1 August 2014. Adenine auxotrophy – be aware: some effects of adenine auxotrophy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303-1A. 697-707